Sosiologi dalam Seni & Desain | Kevin Renaldo .edu

June 12, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Documents
Share Embed


Short Description

Sosiologi d”l”m Seni & Des”in M”teri ○ Pengen”l”n Sosiologi d”l”m Seni d”n ..... own st”nd”r...

Description

Sosiologi dalam Seni & Desain

Materi ● ● ●

Pengenalan Sosiologi dalam Seni dan Desain Budaya dan Masyarakat Sosialisasi dan Interaksi Sosial

Sosiologi dalam Seni dan Desain

Sumbangan Sosiologi ● Memberi pemahaman tentang

permasalahan sosial dan pola-pola perilaku ● Membantu memahami cara kerja sistem sosial yang dialami di kehidupan kita.

◦ Struktur-struktur sosial (bagaimana masyarakat terorganisasi lewat aturan-aturan tentang bagaimana orang saling berelasi dan juga bagaimana mengelola kehidupan sosialnya) ◦ Proses-proses sosial (bagaimana masyarakat berfungsi dan proses tersebut berjalan secara tertentu lewat cara yang bahkan sering tanpa disadari)

PEMAHAMAN SOSIOLOGI ● Mengenal

Sosiologi berawal dari premis dasar bahwa kehidupan manusia adalah kehidupan sosial (Rebach and Bruhn 2001, 5). ● Kebanyakan manusia secara ajeg terlibat dalam interaksi bersama sesamanya. Mulai dari keluarga tempat manusia dilahirkan, lewat sekolah, kerja, dan bermain; pensiun dan bahkan ketika kumpul bersama untuk memperingati arwah, kita hidup dalam rajutan yang saling kait mengkait dalam tatanan sosial

Fokus sosiologi terhadap tatanan tersebut, termasuk tentang bagaimana tatanan tersebut diciptakan, bagaimana tatanan tersebut berubah, dan bagaimana tatanan tersebut mempengaruhi hidup kita, memberi peluang dan pilihan hidup bagi kita (Rebach and Bruhn 2001, 5).

Etimologi Sosiologi • Istilah sociology berasal dari kata Latin word socius (companion) dan kata Yunani logos (study of ). • Jadi Secara harafiah sosiologi berarti ilmu tentang persahabatan (Abercrombie, Hill, and Turner 2000, 333). • Definisi yang lebih luas dari yang harafiah kurang lebih berarti: studi ilmiah tentang perkembangan, struktur, interaksi, dan perilaku kolektif dari relasi-relasi sosial. • Secara resmi istilah Sosiologi diperkenalkan oleh Auguste Comte (1798–1857), Filsuf Perancis yang digelari “Bapak Sosiologi.”

Sumbangan Sosiologi Kita dibanjiri oleh informasi dalam berbagai bentuknya tentang: bagaimana kita, dan dunia di seputar kita, berada bersama dan bagaimana seharusnya berada bersama. ❑ Pesan/informasi tersebut hadir dalam berbagai bentuk: ⚪ sebagai macam-macam tuntunan hidup dari orang tua, atau guru; ⚪ Sebagai hukum dan peraturan yang ditetapkan agama dan politik. ⚪ Sebagai macam-macam iklan mulai sepatu olahraga sampai bagaimana membantu orang kelaparan ❑

1. Membantu memahami megapa kita mempersepsi dunia dan cara kita mempersepsinya :

Jadi, Sosiologi membantu kita dalam:

mempelajari berbagai jenis pesan/ informasi yang terus menerus kita terima, ■ sumber-sumber pesan tersebut, ■ bagaimana serta mengapa pesan-pesan tersebut mempengaruhi kita, ■ jperan kita dalam memproduksi pesan, mengabadikannya dan mengubahnya. ■

Sumbangan Sosiologi 2. Membantu mengindentifi kasi apa saja yang kita miliki bersama, di dalam dan di antara kebudayaan dan masyarakat. .



Sosiologi mengetahui bahwa: ◦ Orang dapat tinggal di tempat berbeda (kota, negara, dunia), dapat berbeda cara berpakaian, cara berbicara, kepercayaan, kebiasaan, dll. TETAPI: ada yang sama yaitu: tipe kekuatan sosial yang membentuk kehidupan mereka. meskipun orang berbeda dalam hal:

Pandangan sosiologi tersebut penting , meskipun media massa sering memperlihatkan perbedaan. ● Sosiologi mencari: ◦ Struktur sosial apa dan proses mana yang penting bagi berbagai kelompok.. ◦ Bagaimana berbagai kelompok terbentuk, dan dipengaruhi masyarakat. ◦ Maka dapat membantu kelompok dalam mencari perhatian bersama, memahami perspektif kelompok lain, dan mencari jalan untuk kebaikan bersama. ●

Sumbangan Sosiologi 3. Membantu memahami mengapa dan bagaimana masyarakat berubah.





Sosiologi adalah bidang ilmu yang mempertanyakan secara terus menerus kondisi kemanusiaan, memashaminya, menjelaskannya, mengkritknya, dan meningkatkannya. (Restivo 1991, 4). Karena itu, kalau kita memiliki perspektif sosiologis, kita dapat: ◦ lebih efektif dalam mengambil tindakan ketika kita tidak suka terhadap apa yang terjadi. ◦ Lebih mampu ikut serta dalam membentuk masa depan kita dan orang lain.

Kaitan antara Sosiologi dan Psikologi Disiplin ilmu sosial Fokus bidang ilmu

Psikologi

Perspek f individualis k

Perha an yang sama dengan Sosiologi Penyesuaian dengan situasi hidup

Perbedaan Fokus dengan Sosiologi Pengaruh eksternal pada individu

Perbedaan antara seni murni, craft dan desain

Seni murni

craft



Ekspresi pribadi

• Craftmanship



Inovasi visual

• Workmanship

• Memperkaya pengalaman estetika •

subjektivitas

• Unik • Trial & error • nilai keindahan tersendiri

disain

• Problem solving of need •

fungsi dan daya pakai



proses desain



produksi



objektivitas

tty-metdes

12

desain ●







Hasil karya melalui sebuah proses yang melibatkan berbagai disiplin ilmu dan merupakan hasil kerja koordinatif Proses yang melibatkan penelitian ( guna mengetahui kebutuhan masyarakat pengguna) Merupakan proses kreatif yang melibatkan unsur kemampuan, berpikir lateral dan pengalaman Merupakan proses pengambilan keputusan yang rasional dan dapat dipertanggung jawabkan tty-metdes

13

Desain sebagai salah satu unsur dalam memenuhi kebutuhan manusia manusia

DESAIN

kegiatan

tuntutan kebutuhan

tty-metdes

14

Desain merupakan hasil dari proses penelitian

- informasi proyek - sistem yg digunakan

Teknis

masyarakat

- informasi pemakai

informasi

desainer

- informasi kegiatan, kebutuhan dan kapasitas

- informasi lingkungan

Non teknis

- perilaku, karakter, sifat - hirarki, struktur, klasifikasi sosial - karakteristik demografi, interaksi sosial dan budaya - kualitas kenyamanan, efisiensi, keamanan, privasi

Faktor eksternal

-

aspek legal: peraturan

-

topografi, iklim dan waktu

tty-metdes

15

Desain merupakan hasil proses kreatif yang melibatkan unsur kemampuan, keterampilan, berpikir lateral dan pengalaman

Proses kreatif yang berlangsung selama mendesain harus disertai dengan kemampuan desainer dalam mengolah informasi, memunculkan ide dan kemampuan berpikir lateral (secara menyeluruh), memunculkan berbagai alternatif pemecahan. Untuk itu desainer harus memiliki pengalaman. Pengalaman diperoleh dari lingkungan pendidikan, kehidupan sosial budaya dan hubungan sosial masyarakat.

Persepsi thd masalah

Penyusunan tahapan pemikiran

First insight Preparation

Penilaian yang kritis

Antisipasi



• Mengerti masalah • solusi

Incubation Aksi dari dalam pikiran

• Pengenalan masalah

illumination Verification

tty-metdes

pencarian

Pengendalian pemikiran

Pemunculan ide

penguraian, pengujian dan pengembangan

16

BUDAYA DAN MASYARAKAT

Budaya dan Tipe Budaya ● Kebudayaan:

terdiri dari segala ide, kepercayaan, perilaku, dan berbagai barang/produk dalam hidup bersama dan mencirikan cara hidup sebuah kelompok. ● Lebih dari sekadar hal-hal yang diciptakan manusia, dan memiliki segala hal yang terdapat dalam interaksi antar manusia:

◦ membentuk cara pandang manusia terhadap dunia di sekitarnya. ◦ Berdampak pada cara manusia berpikir, bertindak, menentukan nilai, bagaimana berbicara, organisasi apa yang dibentuk, ritual apa yang dijalani, hukum yang dibuat, bagaimana dan apa yang disembah, apa yang dimakan, apa yang dipakai, apa yang dinilai cantik atau jelek, dll.

BUDAYA DAN TIPE BUDAYA

Tipe Budaya ● Kebudayaan material:

meliputi segala hal yang dapat terlihat yang dibuat oleh manusia dari hasil interaksi di antara mereka: contohnya; pakaian, buku, karya seni, bangunan, komputer, sofware, penemuan-penemuan, makanan, kendaraan, alat-alat, dll. ● Kebudayaan non-material: terdiri dari segala hal yang tak terlihat yang diciptakan manusia dari hasil interaksi di antara mereka. Antara lain: ide, bahasa, nilai, kepercayaan, perilaku, dan institusi/lembaga sosial. ● Kebudayaan material, seperti teknologi, dapat lebih cepat berubah daripada kebudayaan non-material. Jika hal itu terjadi, akan terdapat cultural lag, dimana terdapat gap yaitu berbagai aspek perubahaan kebudayaan yang berbeda dalam berbagai tingkat (Ogburn 1964; Volti 2001).

BUDAYA DAN TIPE BUDAYA Tipe Budaya ● Kebudayaan Tinggi: High culture

terdiri dari hal-hal yang pada umumnya diasosiasikan dengan eli sosial. Contoh Kebudayaan Tinggi antara lain: adalah opera, dansa (cotillions or debutante balls), musik klasik dan kesusasteraan, pencicipan anggur, dan seni (fine arts). Aktivitas tersebut tidak dapat diikuti oleh semua orang atas berbagai alasan: mungkin terlalu mahal, atau berlokasi di tempat eksklusif (sulit diakses tanpa keanggotaan, atau uang yang cukup), Dapat ditambahkan: perlu pengetahuan khusus agar memahami dan mengapresiasinya. ● Kebudayaan Rendah: popular culture terdiri dari berbagai kegiatan yang dapat diakses masyarakat luas di sebuah kebudayaan tertentu, tidak dibatasi oleh kelas sosial tertentu. Contoh: resto fast-food, konser dangdut, konser musikpop/rock, tayangan komedi situasi di TV, novel-nover best-sellers,dll.

MASYARAKAT - SOCIETY Sebuah masyarakat terdiri dari orang-orang yang saling berinteraksi dan berbagi kebudayaan yang sama. ● “ Masyarakat

tak dapat dihilangkan dari individu karena masyarakat memiliki nilai-nilai, rencana-rencana dan hal-has bersifat materi tertentu yang terakumulasi dalam suatu masa tertentu dimana seorang anak tak pernah mampu secara sendirian mengumpulkannya…..Tetapi, individu juga tak dapat dihapus dari masyarakat karena segala aktivitas dan keaslian diri serta hal-hal yang dilakukannya baik nilai-nilai serta hal material yang dilakoninya secara keseluruhan menyumbang peradaban.” (Thomas and Thomas 1928, 233–34). ● Some definitions of society (particularly older ones) specify that interaction occurs within some shared boundary. Increasing globalization and the rapid expansion of communication, information, and transportation technologies all make culture sharing and convergence possible across the globe. ● Dropping this geographic aspect of the definition of society allows a more accurate and complex understanding of all that a society is. For example, Palestinian society defies any strictly defined territorial boundaries (Abercrombie, Hill, and Turner 2000, 330).

SOCIAL STRUCTURE

Society includes our social institutions, the major social organizations formed to meet our human needs structure, the way a society is organized around the regulated ways people interrelat.e and organize social life

● social

STATUS statuses are established social positions



Achieved statuses are those positions acquired through personal effort.

• Being a law-school student, architect, parent, square dancer, or shoplifter are all achieved statuses. Individuals had to do something to become each of these things.

• Ascribed statuses are positions involuntarily

acquired through birth.

• Being a female, a Caucasian, a toddler, a son, a brother, or a princess are all ascribed statuses.

Status Set & Master Status

PERAN A role is a behavior expected of someone in a particular status. ● role set, all of the roles that go with a single status. ● Role conflict The roles for different statuses the person

holds may

conflict with each other. Our doctor, who is also a mother, may find it difficult to devote the long work hours required of her job and concurrently fulfill the expectations of being a parent. Long work hours may make attending her child’s school plays or teacher conferences difficult. Role strain occurs when two or more roles associated with a single status are in conflict. This requires balancing expectations. For example, the doctor may find it difficult to give patients all the time she would like to during appointments while holding to her appointment schedule and seeing the number of patients she must see daily to meet the financial obligations of the clinic.

ASPEK BUDAYA cultural values, norms, symbols, and language ● Values, culturally defined ideas about what is important. ● Norms constitute the shared rules or expectations

specifying appropriate behaviors in various situations. ● A symbol is something that stands for, represents, or signifies something else in a particular culture. It can represent, for example, ideas, emotions, values, beliefs, attitudes, or events. A symbol can be anything. It can be a gesture, word, object, or even an event. Sharing symbols can help build a sense of unity an commitment among people. ● Language is a system of symbols that allows communication among members of a culture. These symbols can be verbal or written.

DIVERSITY subculture is a smaller culture within a dominant culture that has a way of life distinguished in some important way from that dominant culture. ● A culture that opposes patterns of the dominant culture is known as a counterculture. Countercultures are often youth-oriented (Spates 1976). In the 1960s, hippies advocated dropping out of the mainstream culture into a communal, peaceful, self-exploration lifestyle. ● The process of a cultural group losing its identity and being absorbed into the dominant culture is known as assimilation. ● multiculturalism—a recognition of and respect for cultural differences. Multiculturalism allows much of the dominant culture to be shared while valuing some traditions of various subgroups. ● Ethnocentrism - judging other cultures by the standards of one’s own culture. ● Cultural relativism- judge other cultures by those cultures’ own standards ●A

SOSIALISASI DAN INTERAKSI SOSIAL Teori Sosialisasi ● the looking-glass self - Charles Horton Cooley (1864–1929),

◦ society provides a sort of mirror, or “looking-glass,” that reflects to us who we are. We form our self image on the basis of how we think others see us. ◦ This concept consists of three major parts: • “the imagination of our appearance to the other person; • the imagination of [the] judgment of that appearance; • and some sort of self-feeling, such as pride or mortification” (Cooley 1964, 184). We come to think o ourselves in terms of how we imagine others see us.

◦ Primary groups are those small groups in which all the members have enduring, intimate face-to-face interaction and cooperation. ◦ secondary groups, larger groups in which all members do not interact directly and have relationships that are not permanent

SOSIALISASI DAN INTERAKSI SOSIAL Teori Sosialisasi ● The I and Me ● George Herbert

Mead (1863–1931)developed a concept of the self that was central to our understanding of the socialization process and the development of symbolic interactionism. ● To Mead (1934), we are not born with a “self.” We develop a self through social experience and interaction. ● There are two phases to this self that we form: the I and the Me. ◦ The I is a spontaneous, impulsive, creative actor. ◦ The Me is the part of us that conforms, reflecting and acting on the reactions of others. ◦ We have a mental conversation with ourselves that guides our behaviors that goes like this:

• When I do something, it will reflect on Me, and others will appraise that behavior. I can then fashion new actions and reactions in response to my perception of how others have appraised Me.

is role taking, or the ability to take the role of others in social interaction, enabling us to see ourselves as we perceive society sees us.

● The core of socialization in Mead’s concept

SOSIALISASI DAN INTERAKSI SOSIAL Teori Sosialisasi ● Personality and Social Development ● Sigmund Freud (1856–1939), profiled below, is both complex

and controversial made important contributions to our understanding of socialization.

◦ early socialization is critically important to personality development and to managing natural desires that promote self-interest rather than social interests. ◦ the importance of internalizing norms and values. ◦ Freud (1950) moved beyond Cooley’s and Mead’s focus on conscious perceptions, identifying the importance of the unconscious mind.

● Freud (1950) saw personality as divided into three parts: the id,

the ego, and the superego.

SOSIALISASI DAN INTERAKSI SOSIAL Teori Sosialisasi ● ognitive development that examined how children develop the ability to learn, understand, and engage in logical

thought. Jean Piaget (1896–1980), Piaget felt that humans develop through four stages as they learn to use language, understand reality, discover how and why things work as they do, and then think abstractly. They learn to make causal connections and reason out alternatives. A corresponding theory of moral development examined how people progress from the self-centeredness of a small child, through learning, to understand others’standpoints and develop an abstract sense of fairness. Social experience is a vital role throughout this development (Piaget 1926, 1928, 1930, 1932). ● theory of moral development ( Lawrence Kohlberg). According to Kohlberg (1984), moral development also occurs in stages. Children do what meets their needs to stay out of trouble. As young teens, people are socialized into meeting socially accepted norms and values. Some adults are then able to engage in abstract ethical reasoning, considering not only “right” and “wrong” but the reasons for these positions. ● gender-role socialization, How socialization impacts this moral reasoning has been the subject of further research by psychologist Carol Gilligan (1982; Gilligan, Ward, and Taylor 1989). Considering gender, she argues that boys and girls use different principles in moral reasoning. These principles reflect the ● process of learning to take on socially approved roles for males and females. Boys tend to focus on justice, whereas girls tend to focus on caring and responsibility. Gender-role socialization impacts us throughout our lives. It influences the way we approach social relationships, leisure activities, even our jobs.

SOSIALISASI DAN INTERAKSI SOSIAL Proses Sosialisasi

● the family

is the first and most important location for socialization (an agent of socialization). The family into which we are born provides us social characteristics such as social class, race and ethnicity, and religious background. Our families are our initial teachers of behaviors, language, cultural knowledge, values, and social skills. They are also central to gender role socialization (Fenstermaker Berk 1985). In othe words, they provide our primary socialization.

SOSIALISASI DAN INTERAKSI SOSIAL Proses Sosialisasi ● In

schools, students are exposed to a variety of different experiences. They interact with people of different races, ethnicities, religions, social classes, and value systems, perhaps for the first time. These secondary-group interactions with schoolmates and staff are different than the primary-group interactions they have had with their families. When children enter school, they enter a bureaucracy where they are expected to learn how to be a student (Gracey 2001). ● They will be educated not only in academic skills, but also in a hidden curriculum that encourages conformity to the norms, values, and beliefs held by wider society. Students learn to speak with proper grammar, stand in line, wait their turn, and in some schools, say the Pledge of Allegiance to the U.S. flag. In addition to families, schools also contribute to gender-role socialization. Formal and informal institutional activities such as recess periods and games socialize children into culturally approved gender roles (e.g., Best 1983; Block 1983; Thorne and Luria 1986).

SOSIALISASI DAN INTERAKSI SOSIAL Proses Sosialisasi groups, those of similar age, social class, and interests. Peer settings allow children to engage in activities outside of parental control and other adult supervision. Peers become especially important in adolescence. They influence students’ study habits (Bogler and Somech 2002), music, and clothing choices, and views of self (Eder 1995). Theories that address peer socialization are often used to explain adolescent deviance (see chapter 6). Friends are a major source of information about sexuality for adolescents, and they have a greater influence on dating choices than do adults (Wood et al. 2002). Pressure from peers encourages teens to engage insexual intercourse, with boys in particular pressing each other to talk about sexual prowess and “scoring” (Sprecher and McKinney 1993). Parents, however, have influence over many of the “big” areas in adolescents’ lives, such as their long-term goals (Davies and Kandel 1981).

● peer

SOSIALISASI DAN INTERAKSI SOSIAL Proses Sosialisasi ● Mass media, impersonal communications that are directed in a

one-way flow to a large audience, are also important in the socialization process. These media are pervasive throughout society. They include newspapers, magazines, movies, radio, and television. We are exposed to a variety of behaviors, ideas, beliefs, and values through the media. We also obtain many of our views about society and how things are or should be through the mass media. For example, whether or not we have ever met a team of emergency room physicians or observed surgery, we develop expectations about these people and situations based on media portrayals (e.g., televised medical dramas and documentaries about medical procedures).

SOSIALISASI DAN INTERAKSI SOSIAL Proses Sosialisasi ● Anticipatory socialization. They learn and adopt

the behavior and attitudes of the group they desire or expect to join. This occurs as they interact with their peers and attempt to fit in with their mentors and established colleagues. Anticipatory socialization occurs in many settings across society. It’s not specific to the workplace. It occurs in any group we wish to join or use as a reference group. For example, we anticipate how to fit in with classmates, a potential spouse’s family, or members of a sports team we join (see Chapter 5). Retirement from paid work also continues the socialization process. Many workers look forward to being able to leave their jobs and move on to another position or leisurely activities. What they find may be unexpected, at least to some degree. Social expectations for retirees are not as clearly defined as for other stages in the life course. This leaves some retirees in a “roleless” role. However, loss of the worker role is less of a problem to retirees than other issues such as health or income (e.g., Solomon and Szwabo 1994), and most retirees experience their retirement years positively (Atchley 2000; Palmore et al. 1985; Crowley 1985).

View more...

Comments

Copyright © 2017 EDOC Inc.